Welcome to PAK Project 2

NEW PAK2 has new material and a new website built October 2018.


NEW I have many PDF's rather than the single large document. Topics are a suitable size for College course material. I plan to progressively add more PDF's and updates.


The original PAK1 original material is still available here (September 2018 capture).


Until year 2000 a resistor in series with a diode could not be solved analytically for large-signal. Thanks to Robert Banwell the D+R now has an analytical solution. This led to a large signal analytical solution for the common emitter amplifier (see IEEE paper in T.CAS November 2000).


I started the PAK Project to solve equations for Power Amplifiers.


The advantages of an analytic solution:

Describes general behaviour, as opposed to a numerical result that is based on specific values and initial conditions.

Can contribute to intuitive understanding as parameters change.

Can be differentiated and integrated for special conditions such as nulls, maxima's, minima's.

Has no convergence problems.

Can provide an initial DC operating point values for AC simulations.

Can provide analytical device models for BJT's, MOSFET's and tubes to enhance simulators.

Can provide faster simulations – useful for digital effects units and Real Time Emulators (RTE's) which need to run 2-3 orders of magnitude faster than most SPICE simulators.


If you like a challenge, like I do, then why not start a forum or user group or publish a paper.


All my work is free for use under Creative Commons 4 Attribution. Anyone can use it for course material, on websites, journals and books. No liability is accepted. Please let me know if you find any errors. PAK Project is not for profit.


You are welcome to use the Contact section to email me.



Ian Hegglun